Ritual & Religion: Homeric Hymn to Demeter, Goddess of Fertility

Eleusinian hydria Antikensammlung Berlin 1984.46 n2.jpgHomeric Hymns are among the oldest monuments of Greek literature. The lengthy  Homeric Hymn to Demeter provides the most important and complete information about Demeter, goddess of Fertility. It covers the abduction of Persephone, Demeter’s grief and anger, her arrival at Eleusis, nursing Demophoön at the home of Celeus and Metaneira, Zeus’ order to Hades, the return of Persephone for parts of the year to her mother’s realm. The story seems to functionally explain the restoration of fertility to the planet according to the seasons  and how Demeter Establishes Her Eleusinian Mysteries.

 

Painfully aware that Myth and Ritual go hand-in-hand in Ancient Greece *this isn’t intended to be cavalier*… Giving credit to Structuralist or Functionalist interpretations… Ultimately, I gravitate to my Freudian psychoanalytical toolbox to best interpret this myth.

 

 

The cartoon my mind throws up of Hades making Persephone eat a (surreal, Dali-an) pomegranate, and thus robbing Demeter of her offspring (and fertility) for a part of the year… reminds me too much of everything we read just in Hesiod’s Theogony of Kronos and Zeus overwhelming their parents with acts of violence to exert their reproductive supremacy and propagate the universe.

 

 

Persephone prances in the meadow and grabs a flower, Hades abducts her in a chariot and effectively makes her queen of the dead (‘killing’ her). Uranus lies with Gaia and Kronos castrates him, silencing him forever. The fact that Zeus allowed Hades to abduct Persephone (it mentions in the Hymn to Demeter that it as part of the deal he made in divy-ing up the realms of the universe) — makes it Pile, High, and Deeper full of Freudian repressed subconscious/taboo desires. ‘Uh, you drew the short end of the stick, Hades, and got the Underworld for all eternity. To placate you, here, you can have my niece Persephone and reign over souls of the dead with her by your side.’

 

And then we have Demeter disguised as an old lady going about her miserable state and wandering through human cities. “Freud thinks that hidden messages inside a myth are always going to be about just you and me as individuals, developing, working our way through a developing, the developing of our psychological state.” Demeter plays foster mother to Demophon and takes care of him as though he’s immortal. She makes him impervious by dipping him in Lethe, feeds him ambrosia, food of the Gods, and seems to displace all the nurturing she could have done for her own daughter Persephone, who ‘died’ as an immortal, by making Demophon, a mortal, into an immortal.

 

Yeah, I’m using my psycho-analysis toolbox here because my mind totally sees a scene of Demeter lying on Freud’s couch there. ‘Don’t you think when you punish the world by robbing it of its harvests, you are in fact projecting your own trauma of Hades robbing you of your only offspring?’ Hmmmmm.

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Gods and Humans: Reading Hesiod’s Theogony with Freudian lens

In taking Peter Struck’s Mythology class at UPenn (via Coursera), I learned that Sigmund Freud made many contributions not just to psycho-analysis, but also to literature. He tells us that myth s dramatize events in every individual’s mental or psychological development.

 

Freud thinks that hidden messages inside a myth are always going to be about just you and me as individuals, developing, working our way through the developing of our psychological state. In his book, The Interpretation of Dreams (~c 1900), Freud explains the psyche: a repression barrier that blocks the expression of our unconscious desires from our conscious desires.

 

Freud says that myths are the dreams of an entire culture. So what we get when we take a look at myths is we get this kind of displaced and condensed expression of primal desires in a culture that are displaced onto now more acceptable targets for those desires.

Sigmund Freud would have had an absolute field day with Theogony.

I mean, I don’t think you could call Hesiod’s Zeus in any way repressed. Here’s a King-god dead set on taking the throne to the cosmos and not being challenged. Why would a culture want to tell itself a story like this? Overthrows the father-figure, carries out his mother’s crazy wishes, makes siblings (Cyclops and Hecantosheires) his soldiers and weapon makers, overthrows all his aunts and uncles and chains them for all eternity in a pit, divides the universe between him and his brothers but gives the short end of the stick to the other two, mates with all of his aunts and sisters!

Perhaps because a culture wants to go back to the drawing board and completely consolidate order and power in one single entity and produce an empire unchallenged. Or, perhaps a culture wants to tell itself, look, we’re going to be this great empire, because look at the Gods we worship – Zeus was a powerful god who ruled supreme and because we worship him, we’re going to inherit the Mediterranean.

We don’t care if it’s forbidden or how we get there (through cruel means/ gross misconducts), creating an empire is going to be ugly and we’re going to get there. Maybe that’s the repressed cultural dream or goal coming out in a historical context. Maybe it’s all peacocking.

The Prometheus myth, read with a Freudian lens, transposes this expression of angst against the unjust politicians/parents on Greek Gods as mythological deities.

(Going back to Freud’s statement that myth is an expression of dreams of a culture (in this case dreams of justice) or “myths dramatize events in every individual’s psychological development”, so “I’m trying to, as a citizen of the polis, try and figure out why my political leaders are doing such and such”. I prefer to think of parents, though, simply because of the genealogical theme in Hesiod… like ‘why didn’t dad give me fire today’, or ‘why did dad give me all the good meat to eat and save only thigh bones for himself’. And maybe, with a Freudian lens, it’s then possible to see it as, human beings are these younger, less important, stepchildren of Gods on Mount Olympus, and the overbearing parents/father figure in Zeus makes these judgment calls about fire and sacrifice, and more important siblings (such as Prometheus) totally influenced how things developed before we got a chance to grow up and get a say in it, so… that’s life! It’s not fair, you know, but my brother ruined stuff for me and my dad — this is his way of just being a controlling parent — and since Prometheus is busy getting his liver pecked out, let’s just lay low and try to go with it.

Zeus’ battle with the Titans is really interesting from Freudian ‘repressed subconscious / desire to mate with forbidden parents’ point-of-view.

Because, unless I read it wrong, it looks as if Zeus gets rid / puts in chains in Tartarus all the male Titans from the alpha generation. But puts all the females in Mount Olympus and marries/mates with all of them, creating a new generation of gods. He wants to usurp in this case, Kronos’ role not just as ruler of the universe, but also as chief mate of all the first generation goddesses and himself swallows Methis for wisdom. It’s an expression of reproductive supremacy and hereditary legacy. Maybe he swallows Methis to prove he’s better than Kronos, ‘I’m smarter than you, dumbass, let me swallow her before you do…’. I mean, sometimes a cigar is just a cigar, but I don’t think you can say that in Zeus’ case. He really got busy!

The Black Tail – the Author’s Ichthyophobia

It may seem weird to you that the author of a mermaid fantasy action trilogy suffers from acute ichthyophobia. Whaaa..? Ichthyophobia. An extremely rare, highly irrational, deeply innate, fear of fish. How bad is it? *Garrrhh* Is it real? *Shudder* Is it manageable? How contradictory, to write a mermaid story and fear fish!!! Read on…

Picture this: Child walks into aquarium. Great white sharks and all manner of fish hover on the other side of the glass surrounding her. Child lies immobile on automated walkways, circulating the aquarium for two hours, unable to find her way out on account of paralyzing fear that the fish notice her and break the glass to eat her.

Picture this 2: Child follows uncles out into the open ocean on a longboat to watch deep sea fishing. Child has to walk across narrow free- floating wooden gangplanks nailed together, with all manner of catch swimming within fishing nets in “squares” on either side. Child falls into a square and is barely lifted out when a gigantic yellow fish (bahaba? barracuda?) shows its great big mouth and then grazes the surface with its endless, scaly belly, probably 20 ft long

Picture this 3: Jaws plays on TV. Child runs behind sofa and hides there until the movie and its trademark music is over. Holds long-term grudge against folks who had the TV on during that programming. Child goes swimming with her cousins in public swimming pool. Cousins imitate Jaws, hum music and chase her out of pool. Child still scarred for life (and not talking to cousins).

… You get the idea. *Goosebumps* Growing up didn’t make my reactions any better…

Scene 1:  Grown-up goes to beach, dips toes into incredibly shallow shore line. Little finding nemo lookalike (barely 2cm across) latches onto her toe with a gentle bite. Grown-up screams her head off and runs helter-skelter for cover. Tourists gawk. Classmate spills coconut juice trying to figure out what the hell happened. She refuses to enter the water for days.

Scene 2: Grown-up sits down in Chinese restaurant. Unbelievable number of fish hover in an aquarium a few meters away. Grown-up asks to switch places. Meal is served, fish with eyes and head entirely intact on plate. Grown-up leaves resto, meal untouched; upchuck reflux on the street.h

Scene 3: Grown-up plays with two labradors by the Pacific coast. Running all about, they get perilously close to the giant waves. Labradors jump onto grown-up’s shoulders with excitement and she falls backwards into the shorebreak. Machine-washed, she scrapes her legs against the rocks. Spots a single jellyfish floating nearby. Grown-up screams and retreats to dry land, chasing dogs away from the water. National park ranger comes running and then raises an eyebrow.

…Sigmund Freud would have had a field day with me. All my life, my crazy fears fed and were fed by recurrent nightmares of fish. My sleeping life has become a looking glass into my very own personal version of hell…

Nightmare 1: Begins in medias res. I find myself swimming in the middle of a shiver of sharks in deep, green waters. The faster I swim, the more I seem to be surrounded by sharks, and yet I’m going at breakneck speed, which is crazy. I decide to change tactics and head for the nearest shoreline to get out of the water. As I near a beach, the sandy bottom is lined by layers upon layers of freshwater crocodiles. In my panic, I step on one and feel its sharp hide.

Nightmare 2: I am trapped inside the mouth of a leviathan. A whale? Rows upon rows of gigantic teeth trap me in. Staring up, I see human skulls rotting at the gumline and in between teeth, like black cavity spots on marble white teeth. There is no way out.

Nightmare 3: I am hiding in a dark cave. Outside, the beach and the shoreline are visible, it’s intensely bright. I see and hear the scraping of a black tail across the sand. It grates. The scales are tarry black, they leave a trail like it’s bleeding. And it’s shaped like it belongs to a giant merman. Somehow, as in all dreams, I realize a few things instantly: a) this thing, it’s supernatural. b) He knows I’m here, even though I’m tucked away and he hasn’t seen me yet. c) He means to catch me, despite his injury.

One day someone said, in reaction to all my whining about my fear of fish and my nightmares… that maybe I was roleplaying a mermaid in my dreams. That turned the whole experience of my nightmares on its head.. from one of passive victim into one of active lucid dreamer… waiting to receive messages from the universe of my subconscious. That’s when my nightmare journal entries started to turn into threads of a story…